What is Inflation and its Kinds
Inflation and its Kinds
It represents the rise in general price level. Basically when the state bank of the country issue the over demanded notes then it decrease the value of money. Meanwhile raises the general price level in the market.
Some authors define the inflation as follows By
“Inflation is a rise in price level after the full employment has been achieved”
By R.P Kent
“Inflation is nothing more than a sharp upward movement in the price level”
“In the state of Inflation the prices are raising, i.e. the value of money is falling”
On the basis of causes
1. Demand pull Inflation
In which inflation arises due to increase in demand of goods. On the other hand supply of the goods not according to demand of consumers at the result price level increase of existing goods, this situation creates the inflation in the market.
2. Cost push Inflation
When the cost of production increase and producer raise the price level in the market, it’s called cost push inflation. During the manufacturing process, increase the ost of Factor of Production show the high cost of production, at the result producer reduce the supply of goods due to lesser profit ratio, the general price level increased.
3. Budgetary Inflation
When the Govt. of the country borrows from banks or prints new currency notes cover the budget deficit. After it quantity of money increase in the market, which tends the falling the value of money as we as increase the price level in the market. These situations create the inflation.
4. Profit induced inflation
When the monopolist earns the more profits on goods produced. It creates the profit induced inflation. In which basically producer raise the price level as per its wants, at the result price level increase, also becoming inflation.
5. Food inflation
When the prices of foods items increase sharply, it is as food inflation. Just like during the days of Eid, Ramzan etc
6. Income inflation
The inflation that occurs from high income level. Income may increase due to change in salary or foreign remittance.
7. Monetary inflation
This inflation arises due the increase in supply of money with no increase in production is called monetary inflation.
On the basis of rate of inflation
1. Creeping inflation
In which when the price level of goods raises at slow rate over a period of time. It also called mild inflation. The rate of inflation may be upto 2% P.A. this types of inflation faced by Japan, USA, and Singapore.
2. Walking inflation
In walking as the word represent, price level increase in continuous form with fast speed as compare to creeping inflation. The rate of inflation around 5% annually.
3. Running inflation
In which general price level near about 8% to 10% annually is called running inflation.
4. Trotting inflation
In trotting inflation price level rise with double digit i.e. 20% annually. Some authors say about percentage 5% to 20% annually. Pakistan faced the trotting inflation during 1970-80 and 1990-2000.
5. Galloping inflation
When the rate of inflation across the limit of 20% per annum. Then galloping inflation arrived. Maximum limit of galloping inflation is 1000% P.A. during 1980-93 Argentina faced such inflation with the rate of 423.4% p.a.
6. Hyper inflation
When the rate of inflation is more than 1000% p.a. we can say it’s a final stage of inflation. In Poland the rate of inflation was more than 1000% in 1898. Germany also experienced with hyper inflation during 1922-24.
On the basis of degree of control
1. Open inflation
When inflation get out of control of the Govt. in which all measurement and polices are failed to control the price level as well as inflation in the market.
2. Suppressed inflation
If the Government can control over the inflation is called suppress inflation. But on the other hand some other problems are created like hoarding, corruption, and black money.
1. Partial inflation
According to J.M, Keynes, partial inflation occurs when the price level rises partly due to an increase in the cost of production on goods and partly due to rise in supply of money provided the economy is operating below the level of full employment.
2. Full inflation
When in economy General Price level rise due to full employment in the market, because when consu er got the jobs, then they demand more for the purpose f satisfaction, but due to lesser supply of goods price of goods rise and inflation occurs.
As we know inflation very harmful condition for consumers of the economy. Especially for the poor’s, Govt should develop the polices for control over inflation with implementation. Because it required 5 to 10 years to removing the inflation from the economy.
Note: Since the 1999-2000 academic year, German universities have been gradually introducing new educational programs and qualifications for a bachelor’s and master’s degree for a limited number of specialties. A gradual expansion of the nomenclature of educational programs is envisaged, and the universities have the right to decide independently the scope and timing of their introduction. Countries such as Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland and a number of others have experience in issuing a single European Diploma Supplement, which serves as important factors for convergence of national education systems in Europe. In Norway, the transformations associated with the Bologna Process are proclaimed a quality reform and are being implemented since September 2003. Currently, in Europe, the transition from a two- to three-tier system of higher education, including as a new level a Ph.D. Prior to the future meeting of the Ministers of Education of the European countries in May 2005, in Bergen (Norway), quality assurance was given the highest priority, followed by a two-tier system and the recognition of degrees and periods of study. In Russia in the early 1990s. a two-tier system of higher education was introduced along with the traditional one-tier system as more flexible and better adapted to the market of intellectual labor. Even before the accession of our country to the Bologna process, integrated educational complexes for individual disciplines were developed in domestic universities, innovative research was conducted to implement educational programs based on active interaction of science, academic education and professional activities.