What is Kidney Failure and How is it Treated

Kidney Failure and How is it Treated


If one kidney of a person is damaged or its nephrone fails to work, then a person can live on one kidney also, but if both kidneys fails to work then this disease is called kidney failure. This can be treated by two ways:


  1. i) Dialysis.


  1. ii) Kidney transplant.




There are two methods of dialysis:


  1. A) Arterial Blood Dialysis (Haemodialysis):


In this process an artificial kidney machine is used. Machine consists of sterile dialysis fluid and long length dialysis tubing. The arterial blood of a person with kidney failure is pumped slowly through dialysis tubing. The waste products are diffused out in the dialysis fluid. Blood is sends back to the patient in forearm’s vein.


  1. B) Body Cavity Dialysis (Peritoneal Dialysis):


In this process dialyzing fluid is pumped into the abdominal peritoneal cavity (a space between gut and abdomen) through portable machine. Waste products diffuses in dialyzing fluid which drawn back from body through another pump.


Characteristics of Dialyzing fluid:


It consists of solution of amino acids, glucose and mineral ions. As dialyzing fluid does not contain urea so urea from blood easily diffused into fluid. Concentration of glucose, amino acids and mineral ions are similar to blood composition, in order to prevent the loss of these nutrients. Osmosis of water into the blood plasma also occurs.


2-Kidney Transplant:


As process of kidney needs to repeat after few days which is unpleasant and torched to patient. Therefore patient is given another treatment called kidney transplant. In this process one kidney of health person is transplanted to diseased person. The new kidney is connected to patient’s blood and urinary system. But in this process tissue and body chemistry of donor and patient should be similar. If blood groups does not

match then body start problems like tissue rejection. In this problem body produce antibodies and destroy white blood cells. To avoid this problem anti-rejection drugs are injected in the body of patient but it weakens the body ability to fight against infection.


Treatment of Kidney Stones:


The kidney stones can be diagnosed by X-Rays and sonography by ultrasound machine. The renal surgery for removal of stones is now being replaced in some cases with the lithotripsy (Breaking of stone with ultrasound waves).


Note: Develops responsibility. Independently receiving knowledge and mastering this or that subject, the student understands that he can count only on himself. So, the externship exists in different educational institutions: in schools and universities. A student who studies under this program is not required to attend classes, but must pass all examinations and tests. Anyone who has a certificate of maturity can enter the university for an external study. After he passes all the exams and tests and defends the thesis, he will receive a diploma of higher education, but with the mark “Externate”. “Externate is an independent study of students in accordance with the basic educational program of higher professional education in the chosen area of ​​training or specialty with subsequent certification (current and final) at a higher educational institution”, – from the Regulations on external studies in state, municipal higher education institutions of the Russian Federation. Now in our country there are about 200 universities,

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