What is Galvanometer & its use in Physics

Galvanometer & its use




A galvanometer is a sensitive and delicate device used to measure the magnitude and direction of small currents


Principle of Galvanometer:


The principle of Galvanometer is based on the interaction of the magnetic field produced by a current forcing in a conductor and the magnetic field of permanent magnet. In this instrument, electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.




A rectangular coil of wire is wound on a light frame with a pointer attached on the tap. The coil frame is pivoted between the jaws of a large horseshoe magnet, at both ends of the coil, hairsprings are attached. These springs help in keeping the coil at zero i potential and also provide the path for entry and exit to the current. A soft iron cylinder is fixed in the core of the coil to enhance the force of conductor. The concave shape of the poles of the horseshoe magnet combined with the cylindrical shape of the core creates the radial field to en5ure that the field lines are always perpendicular to the coil.




When current passes through the coil a couple of opposite forces are produced and causes the coil to rotate. By the motion of the coil, pointer moves on the scale and galvanometer is used to determine the magnitude and direction of current.


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